Know the language of flowers! Which flowers represent love, hope, healing, loss, and good luck? See the’s complete các mục of Flower Meanings. Whether you are picking out a flowers for a holiday gift, a wedding bouquet, or even a garden, reference the language of flowers where each flower has hiddenmeanings.

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The History of FlowerMeanings

The language of flowers has been recognized for centuries in many countries throughout Europe and Asia. They even play a large role in William Shakespeare’s works. Mythologies, folklore, sonnets, and plays of the ancient Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, & Chinese are peppered with flower & plant symbolism—and for goodreason.

Whether you’re giving flowers lớn a mother for Mother’s Day or a friend on their birthday or a beloved on Valentine’s Day, nearly every sentiment imaginable can be expressed with flowers.The orange blossom, for instance, meanschastity, purity, và loveliness, whilethe red chrysanthemum means “I loveyou.”

Flowery Language of the VictorianEra

Learning the special symbolism of flowers became a popular pastime during the 1800s. Nearly all Victorian homes had, alongside the Bible, guidebooks for deciphering the “language,” although definitions shifted depending on thesource.

Following the protocol ofVictorian-eraetiquette, flowers were primarily used khổng lồ deliver messages that couldn’t be spoken aloud.In a sort of silent dialogue, flowers could be used to answer “yes” or “no” questions. A “yes” answer came in the form of flowers handed over with the right hand; if the left hand was used, the answer was“no.”

Plants could also express aversive feelings, such as the “conceit” of pomegranate or the “bitterness” of aloe. Similarly, if given a rose declaring “devotion” or an táo bị cắn dở blossom showing “preference,” one might return to lớn the suitor a yellow carnation lớn express“disdain.”

How flowers were presented and in what condition were important. If the flowers were given upside down, then the idea being conveyed was the opposite of what was traditionally meant. How the ribbon was tied said something, too: Tied to lớn the left, the flowers’ symbolism applied to lớn the giver, whereas tied to lớn the right, the sentiment was in reference lớn the recipient. And, of course, a wilted bouquet deliveredan obviousmessage!

More examples of plants & their associated human qualities during the Victorian era include bluebells và kindness, peonies và bashfulness, rosemary and remembrance, & tulips & passion. The meanings & traditions associated with flowers have certainly changed over time,and different cultures assign varying ideas khổng lồ the same species, but the fascination with “perfumed words” persists just thesame.

What Does Each FlowerMean?

See our menu below for meanings of herbs, flowers, and other plants. (Please note: Our chart below reflects mainly Victorian flowerlanguage.)

Click on linked plant names for a photo & growingguide.

Meanings of Herbs, Flowers and Other PlantsAbatinaAcanthusAloeAmaryllisAnemoneAngelicaApple blossomArborvitaeAsterBachelor’s buttonBasilBay treeBegoniaBelledonnaBittersweetBlack-eyed SusanBluebellBorageButterfly weedCalla lilyCamellia, pinkCamellia, redCamellia, whiteCandytuftCarnation– Red carnation– white carnation– Pink carnation– Striped– Yellow carnationChamomileChivesChrysanthemum, redChrysanthemum, yellowChrysanthemum, whiteClematisClematis, evergreenClover, whiteColumbine- Columbine, purple- Columbine, redCoreopsisCorianderCrab blossomCrocus, springCyclamenDaffodilDahlia, singleDaisyDaylilyDillEdelweissFennelFernForget-me-notGardeniaGeraniumGladiolusGoldenrodHeliotropeHibiscusHollyHollyhockHoneysuckleHyacinth– blue Hyacinth– Purple Hyacinth– Yellow Hyacinth– trắng HyacinthHydrangeaHyssopIrisIvyJasmine, whiteJasmine, yellowLady’s SlipperLarkspurLavenderLemon balmLilacLily (white)Lily (yellow)Lily (orange)Lily, tigerLily-of-the-valleyLotus FlowerMagnoliaMarigoldMarjoramMintMorning gloryMyrtleNasturtiumOakOreganoPansyParsleyPeonyPinePoppyRhododendronRose, redRose, dark crimsonRose, pinkRose, whiteRose, yellowRosemaryRueSageSalvia, blueSalvia, redSavorySnapdragonSorrelSouthernwoodSpearmintSpeedwellSunflower, dwarfSunflower, tallSweet peaSweet WilliamSweet woodruffTansyTarragonThymeTulip, redTulip, yellowValerianVioletWillowYarrowZinnia
The fine art, Artifice
Affection, also Grief
Unchanging friendship
Symbol of Love, Daintiness
Single blessedness
Good wishes
Bluntness, Directness
Let me go
Longing For You
You’re a Flame in My Heart
You’re Adorable
Fascination, female love, mother’s love
Alas for my poor heart, my heart aches, deep love
Innocence, pure love, sweet love
I’ll never forget you
Disdain, Disappointment, Rejection
Patience in adversity
I love you
Slighted love
Mental beauty
Think of me
Foolishness, folly
Anxious, Trembling
Always cheerful
Hidden worth/merit
Ill nature
Cheerfulness, Youthful gladness
Resignation, Diffidence, Goodbye
Regard,Unequalled Love
Good taste
Innocence, Loyal love, I’ll never tell
Chinese emblem for mother
Powerful against evil
Courage, devotion
Magic, Fascination, Secret bonds of love
True love memories, vì chưng not forget me
You’re lovely, Secret love
Folly, Stupidity
Flower of the Gladiators, Integrity, Strength, Victory
Encouragement, Good fortune
Eternal love, Devotion
Delicate beauty
Defense, Domestic happiness
Bonds of love
Sport, Game, Play
Loveliness, Prayers for someone
Gratitude for being understood; Frigidity và heartlessness
Sacrifice, Cleanliness
Faith, trust, Wisdom, Hope, Valor
Affection, Friendship, Fidelity
Sweet love, Amiability
Grace; Elegance
Capricious beauty
Open heart, levity, lightness, fickleness (pink or simple varieties).
Joy of youth
Virginity, Purity, Heavenly
Happy, Gay, Walking on air
Wealth, Pride
Sweetness, Tears of the Virgin Mary, Humility
Purity, Enlightenment, Self-regeneration, và Rebirth
Nobility, Love of nature
Grief, jealousy
Joy & happiness
Good luck, love in a marriage
Patriotism, Conquest, Victory in Battle
Bashful, Happy Life or Shame
Humility, Piety
Danger, beware
Love, I love you
Innocence, Heavenly, I’m worthy of you
Jealousy, Decrease of love, Infidelity
Grace, clear vision
Wisdom, immortality
I think of you
Forever mine
Spice, interest
Deception, Graciousness
Constancy, jest
Warmth of sentiment
Feminine fidelity
Blissful pleasures,Good-bye, Thank you for a lovely time
Hostile thoughts, declaring war
Lasting interest
Courage, strength
Passion, declaration of love
Sunshine in your smile
Watchfullness, Modesty, Faithfulness
Everlasting love
Thoughts of absent friends, lasting affection

Flower Meanings byColor

Flowers provided an incredibly nuanced size of communication. Some plants, including roses, poppies, and lilies, could express a wide range of emotions based on their coloralone.

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Take, for instance, all of the different meanings attributed khổng lồ variously colored carnations: Pink meant “I’ll never forget you”; red said “my heart aches for you”; purple conveyed capriciousness; white was for the “the sweet & lovely”; và yellow expressed romanticrejection.


Likewise, a white violet meant “innocence,” while a purple violet said that the bouquet giver’s “thoughts were occupied with love.” A red rose was used to openly express feelings of love, while a red tulip was a confession of love. The calla lily was interpreted khổng lồ mean “magnificent beauty,” & a clover said “think ofme.”

Unsurprisingly, the color of the rose plays a huge role. Red roses symbolize love and desire, but roses come in a variety of colors & each has their ownmeaning.

White rose: purity, innocence, reverence, a new beginning, a freshstart.Red rose: love, I loveyouDeep, darkcrimson rose:mourningPink rose: grace, happiness,gentlenessYellow rose: jealousy,infidelityOrange rose: desire andenthusiasmLavender rose: love at firstsightCoral rose: friendship, modesty,sympathy


What Wedding FlowersMean

One tradition is khổng lồ select the flowers of a wedding bouquet based on plant symbolism. As an example, look khổng lồ the royal flower bouquet in the wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, to Kate Middleton (now Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge). Her all-white bouquet had lily-of-the-valley (representing trustworthiness, purity), sweet William (gallantry), hyacinth (loveliness), myrtle (love in marriage), và ivy (continuity).Altogether, these flowers’ meanings reveal thehope of aloving, everlastingmarriage.

The groom, too, wears a flower that appears in the bridal bouquet in his button-hole. This stems from the Medieval tradition of wearing his Lady’s colors, as a declaration of hislove.

One fun modern idea is to giveeach bridesmaid a bouquet featuring a signature flower whose meaning suits herpersonality.

There is a language, little known,Lovers claim it as their own.Its symbols smile upon the land,Wrought by nature’s wondrous hand;And in their silent beauty speak,Of life và joy, to those who seekFor Love Divine & sunny hoursIn the language of the flowers.–The Language of Flowers, London,1875